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Determination of Evidence in Disputes Over Pharmaceutical Patents

Aysel Korkmaz Yatk?n
Selin Sinem Erciyas
Zeynep Ça?la Üstün
The determination of evidence, one of the most important temporary legal protection measures regulated in Turkish law, is an institution that ensures the protection of evidence, which will assist in proving the matter in question. Considering that the adversarial trial process is adopted in Turkish civil procedure law, the significance of the rights holder being able to have the evidence that will help them prove themselves effectively determined is clear. However, in disputes relating to pharmaceutical patents, the determination of evidence institution is also a prerequisite in order to benefit from a preliminary injunction, which is another interim measure institution.

Human or Non-human Remains the Question for Designating AI (Based Machine) As Inventor. An Overall Evaluation After the Appeal Decisions in the UK, EPO and in Australia on DABUS Applications

Mehmet Naz?m Ayd?n Deri?
It will be recalled that, in the subject applications, the applicant Dr. Thaler has designated AI (DABUS)as inventor and claimed that he derived the “right to the patent by virtue of being its creator and owner”. The applicant asserted that the “inventions had been created autonomously” as DABUS, the so-called, “the creativity machine” “produces new ideas and mimics the human brain’s major cognitive circuit: the thalamocortical loop.”
Fan Tokens from a Legal Perspective

Görkem Gökçe
Elif Aksöz
As fan tokens have developed into a tool that enables fans to demonstrate and strengthen the bond they have formed with their clubs, we are witnessing that many sports clubs, both abroad and in our country, have their own fan tokens. In this article, we examined fan tokens from a legal standpoint.
New Era for E-marketplaces and E-sellers/providers

Bora Yaz?c?o?lu
Kübra ?slamo?lu Bayer
Simge Yüce
Asl? Rabia Sava?
Feyza Özanl?
Merve Betül Baltürk
Amendments to the Law on Electronic Commerce (“Amendments”), and New Regulation on Electronic Commerce Intermediary Service Providers and Electronic Commerce Service Providers (“Regulation”) which impose significant obligations on operators (“Marketplace Operator”) of e-marketplaces (“Marketplace”) and e-commerce sellers/providers (“Seller/Provider”), have entered into force as of 1 January 2023[1].
Hukuki Perspektiften Taraftar Tokenleri

Görkem Gökçe
Elif Aksöz
Taraftar tokenlerinin taraftarlar?n kulüpleriyle kurduklar? ba?? göstermesine ve güçlendirmesine olanak sa?layan bir araç haline gelmesiyle birlikte hem yurt d???nda hem de ülkemizde pek çok spor kulübünün kendisine ait taraftar tokenine sahip oldu?unu görüyoruz. Bu yaz?m?zda taraftar tokenlar?n? hukuki perspektiften sizler için analiz ettik.
Finansal ve Operasyonel Yeniden Yap?land?rma – CRO Gibi Dü?ünmek

Fatih Aydo?an
Emre Saliho?lu
Bilindi?i üzere, yap?land?rma/dönü?türme (restructuring/turnaround), bir ?irketin finansal ve operasyonel yönden iyile?tirilmesidir (yeniden yap?land?r?lmas?d?r). Bu ihtiyaç, özellikle ?irketin finansal olarak s?k?nt? ya?ad???/ya?amaya ba?lad??? zamanlarda gündeme gelmektedir. Ödemelerde zorluk ya?ayan, gelirleri azalan, sat?? rakamlar? dü?en, bütçede dengeyi tutturamayan, nakit ak??? sa?l?kl? olmayan, rekabet gücü azalan, yeni ürün ç?karamayan, pay sahipleri aras?nda ihtilaf bulunan ?irketlerin finansal ve operasyonel s?k?nt? içinde oldu?u söylenebilir.
Geographic Data License: What Does It Mean for E-Commerce Companies?

Bora Yaz?c?o?lu
I??l Çelik
1. What Are Geographical Data and Geographic Information Systems? According to the legislation on Geographical Data and Geographic Information Systems: Geographical data (“Geodata”) is “any kind of data containing location information”. For example, administrative units, toponyms, building and address information are within this scope.Geographic Information Systems (“GIS”) are the “set of hardware, software, human resources, standards, and methods necessary for the production, supply, storage, processing, management, analysis, sharing, presentation and keeping up to date of Geodata”.
Singapore International Commercial Court Released A Model Arbitration Clause

Ziya Ak?nc?
Beril Kasap
The Singapore International Commercial Court (“SICC”) has released a model clause to enable the parties to designate the SICC as the competent court for hearing their arbitration-related court cases: “In respect of any court proceedings in Singapore commenced under the International Arbitration Act 1994 in relation to the arbitration, the parties agree; (a) to commence such proceedings before the Singapore International Commercial Court (“the SICC”); and (b) in any event, that such proceedings shall be heard and adjudicated by the SICC.” SICC also stated that this model clause will be a part of the Singapore International Arbitration Centre’s model arbitration clause. As such, the parties will be able to choose a specialist court to rule on their arbitration-related litigation cases.
Usufruct Right on Registered Shares in Joint Stock Companies

Görkem Gökçe
Elif Aksöz
The right of usufruct is a real right granting its holder full power to benefit from the subject of the right. This right can be established over movables, immovables, or other rights or assets. It follows naturally that a usufruct right can be established on the company share as well. Establishing the usufruct right on company shares are regulated under Turkish Commercial Code (Law No. 6102) (“TCC”). While there are several reasons for granting a usufruct right over company shares, one commonly encountered scenario is the shareholder granting the usufruct rights to its creditors for its debts.
Yarg?tay ?çtihatlar? Çerçevesinde Aral?kl? (Fas?lal?) Çal??malar?n K?dem Tazminat?na ve Y?ll?k ?zin Ücretine Etkisi

Evrim Uygur Yamaner
Mete R?za Nemlio?lu
Ayn? i?veren bünyesinde, i?verenin ayn? veya farkl? i?yerlerinde, farkl? i? akitleri kurulmas? suretiyle aral?kl? olarak yap?lan çal??malara “aral?kl? çal??ma” veya “fas?lal? çal??ma” denilmektedir. Fas?lal? çal??ma, çal??an?n bir i?yerinde bir süre çal??t?ktan sonra ayr?lmas? ve aradan vakit geçtikten sonra ayn? i?veren bünyesinde çal??maya devam etmesi olarak da ifade edilmektedir. Fas?lal? çal??malarda önceki dönem çal??malar?n?n k?dem tazminat?na ve y?ll?k izin ücretine etkisi farkl?l?klar göstermektedir, bu husus pek çok uyu?mazl??a konu olmu? ve bu uyu?mazl?klar yerle?ik içtihatlar zemininde netli?e kavu?turulmu?tur.
Administrative Fines to be Imposed in 2023 under the Personal Data Protection Law

Burak Özda??stanli
Ebru Gümü?
Administrative fines to be imposed in case of violation of the Law on Protection of Personal Data No. 6698 (“DPL”) are regulated in Article 18, titled “Misdemeanors”, of the DPL. Within the scope of this article, those who do not fulfill the following obligations may be subject to administrative fines ordered by the Personal Data Protection Board (“Board”):
Türkiye E-Spor Federasyonu Ana Statüsü Yay?mland?

Görkem Gökçe
Ya?mur Yollu
Türkiye E-Spor Federasyonu Ana Statüsü (Statü), Türkiye E-Spor Federasyonu (Federasyon) taraf?ndan Spor Kulüpleri ve Spor Federasyonlar? Kanunu (Kanun) ve Ba??ms?z Spor Federasyonlar?n?n Çal??ma Usul ve Esaslar? Hakk?nda Yönetmelik kapsam?nda haz?rlanarak 18 Kas?m 2022’de Resmî Gazete’de yay?mland? ve ayn? tarihte yürürlü?e girdi.
Turkish E-Sport Federation’s Main Statute is Published

Görkem Gökçe
Ya?mur Yollu
Turkish E-Sports Federation’s Main Statute (Statute) was published by the Turkey E-Sports Federation (Federation) in the Official Gazette and entered into force on 18 November 2022 within the Law on Sports Clubs and Sports Federations (Law) and the Regulation on Procedures and Principles on the Work of Independent Sports Federations.
“Without Prejudice Save as to Costs” under English Law verses the Process of “Sealed Offers” under ICC’s Assistance

Fatma Guney
The possibility of parties settling their dispute by means of amicable settlement can be initiated at any point during the legal proceedings, be it court or arbitration. Indeed, amicable settlement is a commercially sensible and viable route if parties are ever able to see past the acrimony and personal vendetta they may possess against each other after the dispute crystalises. Heated international construction despites, for example, will usually have one side refusing to pay for works carried out on site arguing that works were not carried out to a sufficient level and/or levying delay damages, whilst the other side will be arguing non payment, delay and disruption. For international cases, in some locations it may be particularly challenging to advance the project, and where contractors defeat the odds by carrying out the works notwithstanding these obstacles, any ensuing dispute, especially arising from non payment, fuels the animosity between the parties, hindering any fruitful negotiation process. This is when the parties will be keen to have its ‘day in court’ regardless of the costs at stake.
?kale (Bozma) Sözle?mesi ve Makul Yarar Kavram?

Halil Yap?c?
??çi ile i?verenin kendi aralar?ndaki i? sözle?mesini, sözle?me serbestisi kapsam?nda çe?itli gerekçelerle kar??l?kl? anla?arak, ikale sözle?mesi olarak adland?r?lan bir sözle?me ile sonland?rmas? mümkündür. Nitekim uygulamada, i?çilerin hak ve alacaklar?n? elde etmek, i?verenlerin ise ileride ya?anabilecek olas? yarg?lamalar?n ve olumsuzluklar?n önüne geçmek amac?yla bu yolu s?kl?kla tercih etti?i görülmektedir. Özellikle i? güvencesi hükümlerinin hukukumuza girmesiyle ikale sözle?mesi kavram? daha da önem kazanm??t?r.
Ak?nc? ?n?aat Bülteni

Ziya Ak?nc?
Asena Eren Ar?o?lu
?n?aat Ciro Endeksi Geçen Y?la Göre Art?? Gösterdi TÜ?K taraf?ndan in?aat sektörüne yönelik aç?klanan ciro endeksi, geçti?imiz y?la göre toplamda %124, geçen aya göre %3,9 art?? gösterdi. Bina in?aatlar?nda y?ll?k de?i?imin %100, bina d??? yap? in?aatlar?nda ise %123 ve özel in?aat faaliyetlerinde %140 oldu?u görüldü. Buna kar??n in?aat ciro endekslerinin y?ll?k art?? h?z?nda geçen aya göre azal?? meydana geldi?i gözlemlendi.
Video Games: IP Considerations

Okan Çan
IP lawyers and advisors to video game firms must be creative. This is because: the financial value of the video game industry is high and has been increasing dramatically, especially during the covid-19 pandemic;it is important to address the global reach of the video game industry, but to treat it from a local law perspective;numerous actors are involved in the video game industry; andvideo games are complex works of authorship, comprising diverse IP rights.
Haks?z Ticari Uygulamalar Kapsam?nda Fahi? Fiyat Art???

Asl?han Kayhan
Ba?ak Ta?
Son dönemde kar??la??lan salg?n, sava?, do?al afet, toplumsal ayaklanmalar, iç sava? ve kitlesel göç gibi birçok olay, gelece?e ili?kin belirsizliklerin olu?mas?na ve beraberinde serbest piyasalarda güvensizlik ortam?n?n do?mas?na yol açm??t?r. Piyasalarda ya?anan bu belirsizlik ve güvensizlik ortam?, mal/hizmet piyasalar?nda uygulanan fiyat politikalar?n? genel itibar?yla olumsuz yönde etkilemektedir. Ne var ki, ilgili mal/hizmet piyasas?nda hâkim durumda olan te?ebbüslerin, bu hakimiyetlerini kötüye kullanarak belirsizlik ortam?ndan etkilenmemek ve hatta daha kazançl? ç?kmak için hakl? bir gerekçe olmaks?z?n mal/hizmet fiyatlar?nda fahi? art??lar yapt??? görülmektedir. Te?ebbüslerin bu yakla??m? ile mevcut belirsizlik ve güvensizlik ortam?, piyasalarda fahi? fiyat olu?umlar?na neden olmaktad?r. Olu?an bu fahi? fiyat ortam?ndan, piyasada faaliyet gösteren tüm birimler (ara toptanc?lar, perakendeciler, tüketiciler vs.) olumsuz yönde etkilenmektedir.
Does Turkey Protect Second Medical Use Patents?

Muazzez Koruturk
In our opinion, the General Civil Chamber of the Supreme Court shall acknowledge the will of the Parliament to include the decisions of the Enlarged Board of Appeal. Therefore, EPC 1973 shall be implemented together with reference decisions and second medical use patents should be protected. Since there are no exclusions to the protection of second medical use patents in the IP Code, they should be protected in Turkey as long as they are novel and include inventive step.